EXTRAÇÃO ÁCIDA DA PECTINA DA CASCA DE MARACUJÁ ASSISTIDA POR ULTRASSOM

Giovana de Menezes Rodrigues, Camila da Silva

Resumo


A pectina é um polissacarídeo complexo, que atua como agente geleificante, espessante e estabilizante na composição de diversos produtos. A casca do maracujá possui elevado nível de pectina, cujo método convencional de extração é a ebulição utilizando ácidos fortes. O presente estudo objetivou explorar um novo método de extração utilizando ácidos fracos. Buscando esse propósito, a pectina da casca de maracujá foi obtida por meio de extração assistida por ultrassom, utilizando solução de ácido cítrico. Os experimentos foram conduzidos visando avaliar o efeito das variáveis experimentais (razão amostra:solvente, temperatura e tempo) no rendimento de pectina. Os resultados demonstraram que a extração conduzida com razão amostra:solvente de 1:50 (m/v), temperatura de 50 °C e tempo de 90 min proporcionou a obtenção de 26,45% de pectina. Nessas mesmas condições experimentais a pectina foi extraída por método convencional para efeito comparativo, o qual permitiu a obtenção de 21,06% de pectina. Portanto, o uso do ultrassom promoveu a obtenção de melhores resultados, visto que proporcionou o aumento de 25% no rendimento. O grau de esterificação foi determinado apenas para amostras obtidas por ultrassom, as quais foram classificadas com alto grau de metoxilação (81,93%).

ABSTRACT

Pectin is a complex polysaccharide, which acts as a gelling agent, thick and stabilizing in the composition of various products. The passion fruit peel has a high level of pectin, whose conventional method of extraction is boiling using strong acids. The present study aimed to explore a new extraction method with the weak acids. For this purpose, a pectin from the passion fruit peel was obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction, using citric acid solution. The experiments were conducted with the objective of evaluating the effect of experimental variables (analysis procedure: solvent, temperature and time) on pectin yield. The results demonstrated that the extraction was carried out on the basis of a solvent criterion of 1:50 (m/v) at a temperature of 50 °C and the time of 90 minutes provided a yield of 26.45% pectin. In these same experimental conditions the pectin was extracted by conventional method for comparative effect, which allowed a obtainment of 21.06% pectin. Consequently, the use of the product was promoted to obtain better results, which gave rise to a 25% of increase in yield. The degree of esterification was determined only for samples obtained by ultrasound, which were classified with high degree of methoxylation (81.93%).


Palavras-chave


Ultrassom. Ácido cítrico. Pectina.

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Referências


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18674/exacta.v10i1.2126

ISSN 1984-3151